Charles Martin-Shields is a Senior Researcher at the German Development Institute in Bonn, Germany. His research focuses broadly on the role of digital technologies in economic development and humanitarian response. His current work explores how refugees and displaced people use digital technology to meet their social and economic needs; his earlier work covered topics such as crowdsourcing in disaster response, and the role of ICTs in peacekeeping operations. He has also served as a consultant for the World Bank, UNHCR, and U.S. Institute of Peace, among other organizations. Dr. Martin-Shields received his PhD from the Carter School for Peace and Conflict Resolution at George Mason University (Arlington, VA, USA).